Tolo-Plant Nuts in Narrow Land

Nuts are a food crop commodity as a source of vegetable protein useful for the fulfillment of nutritious foods needed to improve the quality of human resources. Nut production requirements, such as soybeans, green beans, and peanuts, kidney beans, long beans and many more species are increasing in line with the growing population and the development of the food industry. Productivity in bean cultivation in Indonesia
is still relatively low, it has a great opportunity for farmers to meet the high demand by increasing yield and harvest quality more optimally.


In conducting the cultivation of beans, varieties factor, planting area, maintenance, and pest control is the determining factor in yield and quality of harvest of beans. Currently, the cultivation of plants in polybag/pot is increasingly popular.

The reason is, this method is one of the solutions to the problem of a narrow land or land that
is not fertile Plants grown through polybag media itself is diverse, ranging from fruits, vegetables, herbs, beans, etc.

The quality of planted products in polybag/pot is not inferior to the quality of the crops that we plant on ordinary land, even there are some advantages that we can take, including Plants are easy to move, cheaper, easier to maintain, easier to control or control and no less important, plants can absorb nutrients to the roots and can be cultivated anytime or not depending on the season.

On this occasion, I will give a little review about the cultivation of peanuts in the narrow land, such as red beans, long bean, and peanuts Let's discuss them one by one

1. PEANUT 
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) comes from South America Peanut cultivation is not necessary on large land. Planting peanuts can be done in pots or polybag, or it could be a house terrace Here is how to plant peanuts in pots or polybags:

Preparation of Peanut Seeds

a. peanut seeds soaked for several minutes aimed at stimulating germination of peanuts.
b. put the ground peanut seed over the cotton / wet wipes.

Then, put in a shady place but still exposed to the sun. Wait a few days later until the seeds remove sprouts and ready to plant. Preparation of Planting Media Planting media is a mixture of soil and manure. After the seeds and also planting media ready, then do the planting. Plant peanut seedlings that have been prepared with a depth of about 3 cm. After that, place on the shade but still exposed to the sun
Treatment

 a. Sprinkling

Make sure the planting medium remains moist and not dry because the drought will affect the fertility of peanut crops, Therefore, it needs to be watered regularly but when the flowering plants, this watering
should be avoided because it can interfere with pollination

b.Stitching

In order for plants the same size, if there is a dead peanut plant then immediately do embroidery by replacing it with a new plant

c.Weeding

Do weeding around the plant so weeds do not take the nutrients needed by peanut plants to grow

d.Peanut Fertilization

Fertilization does not need to be done on this plant because this plant has been able to absorb Nitrogen (N) from the air, But if you want a more loose planting medium, you can add Phosphate as much as 2 spoons in each pot or polybag before planting

 e. Bursting

After the plant has been aged about 28 days, do the sprinkling on the planting medium around
the plant The goal is that the fruit will get into the ground easily

f. Control of pests and diseases to control the caterpillars and type of lice use insecticides, while to prevent fungi and bacteria use a fungicide, It's better to use biological insecticides and fungicides for pest and disease controlling. Peanut Harvest Period Peanuts can be harvested after about 90 days after planting if on the rainy season and about 105 days after planting if the dry season. Characteristics of peanut crops that are ready for harvest are some of the leaves have yellowed, 85% of the stem has been fallen and the beans are fully loaded.

How to plant peanuts is very easy to just pull the stem until the bean at the root of, it is also uprooted then pick peanuts and collect on the container.

image Tolo-Plant Nuts in Narrow Land




2. RED beans

Red beans are one type of legumes are widely consumed by most people in the world Basically, red beans can grow in any medium, however, it can grow optimally when planted in wet climates to dry area at varying altitudes above sea level red beans can grow with a height of about 3, 5 m to 4, 5 m while the fruit is pod-shaped and elongated in one pod generally there are 2 to 3 red beans have larger size than green beans or long beans with dark red or red brick skins if the seeds are peeled, it will look white bean seeds, The red bean that has the Latin name Phaseolus Vulharis L which is one of the most sought-after nuts Instead of its unique color, red beans have a myriad of benefits for the body In addition, as an easy cultivate plant, red beans include in agricultural commodities which are planted by most farmers.

Red beans contain lots of folic acid, calcium, carbohydrates, and protein needed by the body, In addition, high fiber levels can also help lower cholesterol in the body. The way of red bean cultivation is quite easy Basically red beans can grow in any medium. Even if you want to plant in front of the home yard.

The most suitable type of soil for red bean plants is andosol and regosol because it has good drainage it was almost the same as peanuts in term of cultivation.

Fertilization And Watering Of Red Beans

The fertilization process is done once when planting using manure or compost for red beans are safe for consumption Usually when the plants are 2 weeks old red beans will grow young shoots Entering the age of a month, farmers should be wary of pest attacks that often attack the nuts, the pod-like caterpillar leaves.
So, to anticipate, you should spray the fungicide three weeks after seeding
In order to thrive, watering should be routinely done twice a day for 60 days until harvest the time arrives After the age of 2, 5 months, red bean pods can be harvested immediately Please note, late harvesting of red beans will make pods became fibrous hard and tastes less delicious so it will not be sold in the market.

 3. LONG BEANS

Long beans (Vigna sinensis) are included in the Fabaceae family and are one of the most widely cultivated vegetable commodities in the lowlands Long beans are one type of nutritious vegetables that can be processed for various types of cuisine and stir. If you have an empty field, it would not hurt to plant these long beans. Surely for your personal consumption and family Planting long beans in your own yard, even with limited land, is very useful for self-consumption to meet the needs of family protein. Long beans can be one alternative vegetable crop that is suitable to be planted in a narrow land. Here are some things to consider in planting long beans in the yard or limited land:

1. Make sure the Location You Choose gets Sunshine At least 6 hours a day.

2. Prepare your Soil At least plant long beans on a narrow field. that has a soil depth of at least 6 to 8 inches (15 to 20 cm).

3. Determine the seed quality of seed, as this greatly affects the growing resistance of long bean plants that tend to be vulnerable to the pest.

4. As a place to grow can use polybag or pots that have been prepared for the vine Or if in your house there is an iron or bamboo fence you can use it as a vine as well as can add the beauty of your yard.

5. Do the embroidery if there is a seed that does not grow seeds, this will optimize the available space even though the land is very limited.

6. Pruning shoots on branches that are less productive, so long bean plants are not too dense leaves
because it can trigger the emergence of pests more quickly.

7.Prevention of pests by spraying natural pesticides to prevent plants from the disease without chemical interference.

8. Planting Continually. This is a method that requires you to plant new crops as soon as one crop is harvested For example, when you are harvesting early peanuts, immediately plant a broad-leaved vegetable such as spinach, mustard or lettuce this is to offset the level of productivity of the planting medium.


4.Cowpea

Cowpea or Vigna unguiculata is one of the kinds of plant nuts that allegedly come from the region of Central Africa and West Africa, This cowpea has another name such as bean tolo. There are 2 types of cowpea that are often cultivated, namely cowpea with green and square berries and red cowpea with red round beans (this type is often called bean tolo) Cowpea have 3 growth types that are upright, semi-upright and also trailing. This cowpea plant has a flower with a long stalk with a number of flowers about 4 to 6 units of flowers arranged in spins


The cowpea is classified from the Leguminosae (nuts) tribe that has been shown to bind free nitrogen in the air This cowpea has a high body stature can produce fruit that is similar to long beans, its body protrudes on the stake, green leaf shape round with pointed tip The cow-pea (commonly referred to as jade) is a plant with a totted root, a flower of 4 or 5, the leaf repetition is fingered, and the stem does not have a cambium These beans are utilized seeds (dry or wet) as beans The pods are young, and the young leaves are picked as vegetables or vegetables. The seeds can be pounded into flour or further processed into pastries Cowpea are also good to be planted as ground cover, as they can grow in various soil types and in a short time can produce a lot of hummus. As green manure, cowpeas contain high levels of nitrogen, which is 4, 4% dry weight forage

The leaves and twigs are also good for livestock feed because they contain high levels of protein
and lime, while the crude fiber is low

Cowpea Growing Requirements

Cowpea plants can grow well in an environment that has sufficient water. However, in planting areas that have a dry climatic environment, this plant can still grow well although it is undeniable to require regular watering time so that the availability of water in the soil remains moist Another growing requirement is that cowpeas can be cultivated on almost all soil types In sandy clay soil, this plant can grow well until it reaches a height above the average (or about 50-80 cm).

The expected environmental temperature in cultivating cowpea is 21 - 32 degrees Celsius,
air humidity 67 - 78%, and availability of sufficient sunlight throughout the day, The existence of sunlight is very important for growth and development, where the role of sunlight as a chemical substance in the process of photosynthesis plants to produce food Here is how the cultivation of cowpea:

a.Cultivation of Beans

Cowpea plant is planted by ditugal, each planting hole filled with 2 seeds of seed After a week after planting, do the embroidery

b.Irrigation

Irrigation can be increased to 50% to 70%, when the plants on the vegetative process (30 days after planting

c.Maintenance

Weed the weeds as well as pest control. Protect when plants are vegetative and generative d.
Pruning Pruning is done as much as 2 times that when the plants are 2 weeks old pruning is done on the secondary branch, after the plants are 1 month old do pruning on the primary branch.

e. Harvesting of cowpea

Generally, cowpea is used for vegetables so that these nuts are harvested in the form of young pods. Harvesting can be done gradually or lapse a few days because these plants do not bear fruit simultaneously Harvesting can be done directly by hand picking without having to use tools and harvesting can be done in the morning.





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